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First telephone numbers are just names
Depending on exchange size, two, three or four digit numbers assigned to subscribers,
Two letter prefix codes assigned to four digit numbers (Circa 1928 to 1958)
In larger cities three letter prefix codes assigned to four digit numbers (Post WWII)
Seven digit, all number dialing begins phase in. (1958)
Nearly all of North American telephone network converted to all number dialing (1985?)
Some party lines remain, with single digits like Rodeo Creek Number 8
It was all a mistake? In January,
1958, Wichita Falls, Texas was the first American city to institute true number calling, that is, seven numerical digits without letters or names. Although it took more than
fifteen years to implement throughout the Bell System, ANC, or all number calling, would finally replace the system of letters and numbers begun forty years before at the advent
of automatic dialing.
AT&T's operating companies started installing dial telephones in the mid to late 1920s. Customers could now dial
numbers themselves, instead of having an operator place them as before. Rather than use all digits to indicate a telephone number, AT&T hit upon a hybrid system of letters
and numbers. Instead of a number like 351-1017, the Bell System referred to it by a name like ELgin 1-1017, ELliot 1-1017, or ELmwood 1-1017. Something like that. The two letters
and a number indicated a customer's switching office or exchange, the last four digits the actual customer's number. But why use letters?
The Bell System thought abbreviations would prevent misdialing, a mnemonic device to help callers unaccustomed to using dial telephones. AT&T's William G. Blauvelt designed a dial with the letters and
numbers we use today, one without a Q or Z, one without letters for the digits 1 and 0.
The assumption was, therefore, that customers could dial four or five numbers correctly but not six or seven. And that somehow they needed letters as well.
I've never understood, though, why PEnsylvania 6-5000 should be easier to remember or dial than 436-5000. Yet for forty years the most bizarre exchange names flooded the country and the entire telephone system was based on this riot of numbers and letters. It's with some satisfaction I note that
AT&T's Joel and Schindler, in A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System:
Switching Technology (1925 -- 1975), in discussing the Texas trial above, state contritely that "later human-factors studies showed there was no need for letters in the dialing sequence." Whoops! They went on to say that people in 1958 were now used to dialing,
quite unlike forty years before. Four decades of practice were needed before people could dial another two or three digits?
Bell System followed the lead of many Independents who were using numbered and lettered dials before AT&T. Bell's
regional operating companies may have assumed that letters and numbers were necessary
because they were being used, not because they were actually needed. Tradition or sloth
set in afterwards and made exchange numbers accepted, unquestioned practice.
The first telephone numbers weren't numbers, they were names. The name of your company or you as an individual. That
was too confusing to build a telephone system on since many people in a town might share the same name. Starting in 1879, then, scarcely three years after the telephone was
invented, the switch to assigning a customer a number began, with a four digit code being typical. Calls were not dialed by the customer, indeed, there were no dial telephones yet.
All calls were connected manually by an operator at a switchboard. But dial telephones would come along.
Let's look at how telephone numbers have been arranged recently, before we look at the numbered and letter scheme of old. Four digit codes allowed 9,999 possible telephone numbers. Plenty for a small town
but hardly enough for a big city. What to do? For every block of 9,999 telephone numbers you assign a two or three digit code ahead of it, to designate the telephone switch, just
as the four digit code identifies the subscriber. We call the two and then three digit code the prefix or exchange number.
So, if my number was 1017 in one part of town my prefix might be 203, hence 203-1017. Another customer having the same
number in another part of town would get another prefix number, say, 481, for 481-1017.
The numbers 1 and 0 aren't used for prefixes since so many other things are keyed into those digits. Like dialing 1 before placing a long distance call and dialing 0 before
connecting to an operator.
We then have eight digits which can't be more than three digits long. That means 512
possible office or prefix codes. Which works out to roughly slightly more than five million possible telephone numbers. That's a good system but the one the Bell System
settled on for decades was quite limiting. Let's look at that.
As I said before, the Bell System first designated prefixes with letters, not numbers. In the beginning these two letter
abbreviations described the area the switch building or central office was located in.
Like ELm for an Elm street locale or FRanklin for an exchange on Franklin street. But this sensical method didn't last long as the few central office codes ran out. The problem was
there were only so many easily pronounced names, ones where the first two letters of the word wouldn't be confused with other letters. Exchanges were later named for landmarks,
famous families, city neighborhoods, and so on. After World War II some two letter prefixes had a number added on to them to extend their usefulness. Something like PLaza1-1017. That gave more prefix possibilities.
People eventually knew exchange names belonged to certain parts of the city and made associations and assumptions based on
your telephone number. Did you live in downtown San Francisco? Or were you out by Golden Gate Park? Or near the Marina? Your telephone number gave a clue. All number dialing wiped
out all these names and the memories that went them, much angst ensued, and countless editorials mourned their loss. Witness this lament from New York City:
"You could learn about a fella by knowing his exchange. A MOnument fella was up near 100th Street and West End
Avenue. You could picture him coming downtown on the IRT, strolling first to 96th and Broadway for the newspapers, passing the Riviera and Riverside movie theaters (both gone).
The ATwater girl was an East Side girl, a taxi-hailing girl, on her way to her job at Benton and Bowles. A CIrcle fella was a midtown fella, entering his CIrcle-7 Carnegie-area
office with a sandwich from the Stage Deli. And what about a SPring-7 girl, twirling the ends of her long brown hair as she lay on her bed talking to you on te phone? A Greenwich
Village girl. A 777 girl is nothing. She is invisible. She is without irony, seldom listens to music."
1958 The Bell System began phasing out exchange name dialing or letter prefixes. As Stern and Gwathmey put it, "the WAlnuts, LOcusts, SPruces and MAgnolias were just so much
dead wood." As of 1977, nearly two decades later, only 74% of Bell System lines were ANC or all number calling, it would take years more to complete the job, removing a system
which was never needed in
Could you tell me in what year only a 3 digit number was used?
If you want to date something by a telephone number you should contact the history museum nearest the area your interested
in. Or look in a local library for old phone books or newspapers with ads that contain telephone numbers. It's really the only way to determine an approximate date, given how
every telephone company phased exchange names in and then out.
Mmany people did find them useful in remembering a telephone number and millions still feel sad at their passing.
London Exchange Names in 1916
Britain had some wonderful
sounding exchange names: BR, Brixton; HS, Hammersmith; MA, Mayfair; P, Paddington, and so
on. The table and information on the left is from the ultimate Strowger site:
Strowgers and their kin were early automatic telephone switches. The chart on the right is
from Laidlaw and Grinstead's article The Telephone Service of Large Cities, with Special
Reference to London, presented before the Institution of Electrical Engineers in London on
May 15, 1919. Printed later in the IEE Journal, Volume 57. (1919)
The Mnemonics System
It was thought that people would have problems remembering seven digit numbers (3 exchange
+ 4 subscriber) so a system of allocating letters to the dial to make area mnemonics was
developed. Each exchange was then given a code according to the location, as closely as
possible. The original British lettering scheme was as follows :
1 Not Allocated
Some Examples : BARnet (227) EALing (325) HENdon (436) KINgston
(546) MILlHill (645) PUTney (788) VICtoria (842)
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